Born on 14th November, 1915, in the East Carpathien village of Orzechowka, palatine Lwow, Poland. In 1933 he joined the Polish Air Force school for juniors – SPLDM - on a three years course to train as a pilot, motor, and airframe mechanic. In 1934 he undertook an elementary (eliminating) gliding course at Ustjanowa in the Carpathian mount, achieving category 0, two hours of soaring. After graduating in 1936 he was he was ordered to report as a ground crew corporal to 1st Air Regimment (Pulk Lotniczy) in Warsaw. Once there, he started his pilot training. After finishing of High Pilotage School (Szkola Wyzszego Pilotazu) in Grudziadz, Cwynar joined up 113 EM (Eskadra Mysliwska - Fighter Escadrille), stationed in Warsaw. On 29 August 1939, together with the whole IV/1 DM (Dywizjon Mysliwski - Fighter Squadron), his unit was relocated from Okecie airbase to Poniatow (near Jablonna) airfield. On 1 September 1939 at 6:00, the P-11c's of 113 EM took off against German raiders. In the air combat that took place north of Modlin, Corporal Cwynar claimed 1 enemy plane destroyed. It was probably a He 111, which fell down in flames. On 6 September, during the afternoon air battle, Cwynar downed one Ju 87 near Lowicz. During the next few days, the air activity of 113 EM was very limited, due to heavy losses and very limited fuel supply. After evacuation via Rumania, Cwynar, like many other Polish pilots, arrived in France. In early June 1940, after receiving a short training on French fighters, Cwynar joined the Polish section in Groupe de Chasse III/6. This group was moved to "Italian Front". Thus, he didn't taste the combat over France.Miachal CwynarAfter its fall, Cwynar went to Britain, the "last hope island." Over there, after a long training process and fulfillment of the tour of duty as a board gunner in Training Unit in Scotland, Cwynar finally was posted to an operational Polish Fighter Squadron. Thus, on 25 April 1941, he joined the 315 Squadron. He had to wait for his first kill in RAF till 14 August 1941. During offensive fighter sweep over St. Omer Cwynar flying Spitfire MkII P7613, PK-Z, downed one Bf 109 at 17:50. This was a lucky day for 315 Squadron: seven confirmed kills, one probable and one damaged. One month later, Cwynar scored again. On 16 September, at 18:30, Cwynar flying Spitfire Mk Vb, (AB914, PK-Z) trounced another Bf-109. On 1 June 1942, Cwynar was commissioned. In October 1942, Squadron 315 was reequipped with Spitfires Mk IX. Cwynar was flying one of IXs (EN123, PK-T) during the mission on 3 February 1943 where at 15:25, he downed an enemy fighter. This time it was a Fw 190. Cwynar was rested, flying as an instructor in 58 OUT (Balado Bridge) in May 1943 and in 61 OUT (Rednal) in October 1943. One month later, he rejoined 315 Squadron. In June 1944, F/Lt Cwynar took command of Flight B. On the fifth later that month, he was awarded the Silver Cross of Virtuti Militari (no 09033). A few months later, on September 8, he received a DFC. In effect of V-1 attacks, the 315 Squadron was moved from 2 TAF to ADGB (Air Defence of Great Britain), with an order to "sweep the flying bombs from the sky". On 10 July 1944, the squadron was relocated to Brenzett airfield. Cwynar got his first V-1 (shared with another pilot) on July 19, while piloting a Mustang III PK-Z. The next day, he downed another 'half' of V-1 (Mustang III PK-U), and on July 22, he scored 2 'halves' (on PK-N). Finally, on July 24 Cwynar got his 'full' V-1 kill (on PK-Z). In 'anti-flying bomb' duty, the 315 Squadron scored 53 kills.





He was decorated with:

the Silver Cross Virtuti Militari  No 09033  5 July 1944

the Cross of Valour three Bars

and Distinguished Flying Cross  17 August 1945


                  01.09.1939    P.11                                         113 eskadra                                1-0-0 Ju 87

                      06.09.1939    P.11                                          113 eskadra                                0-1-0 He 111

                      14.08.1941    Spitfire II       PK-Z   (P7613)     315 dyon          17:50                1-0-0 Me 109

                      16.09.1941    Spitfire V       PK-R   (AB914)      315 dyon         18:30                 1-0-0 Me 109

                      03.02.1943    Spitfire IX      PK-T   (EN123)      315 dyon         15:25                 1-0-0 Fw 190

                      19.07.1944    Mustang III   PK-Z                                             10:40                 1/2-0-0 V1

                      20.07.1944    Mustang III   PK-U                                             06:40              1/2-0-0 V1

                      22.07.1944    Mustang III   PK-N   (FZ154)                              21:10 21:20    2 1/2-0-0 V1

                      30.07.1944    Mustang III   PK-Z                                             18:45                    1-0-0 Me 109

                      30.07.1944    Mustang III   PK-Z                      315 dyon        18:45                 1/2-0-0 Me 109

                      06.08.1944    Mustang III   PK-Z                                             13:35                    1-0-0 V1

Piotr Górka © 2007